The Second Anglo Dutch War of 1665-67 formed an integral part of European inter-relations, and understanding it is crucial to the rest of European history in the Post Westphalian Era. It opened with a peace treaty between France and Spain, but by the time of the series' end we are introduced to formidable characters - Johan de Witt, Louis XIV and Charles II. Yet, we are also made aware that, rather than settling anything, the war merely facilitated an even greater conflagration less than five years later

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WDF 28.0: The Second Anglo-Dutch War Part 1

The drought is over, the dust is settling and a new war is on the horizon. Who are we? We are When Diplomacy Fails, and we are back to our roots looking at the series of wars and events which occurred during the era of Louis XIV - the Sun King. In this episode we intro you all to the first of our twelve parter (I know!) on the Second Anglo-Dutch War, a critical war for the history of the era in its own right, and one which sets us up for so much of what's to come, so let's begin, in a makeshift room on some dingy island (and I'm not talking about my desk!)

Despite its name, we actually begin with an epilogue on the Franco-Spanish war, which had been inherited from the Thirty Years War of old. Here we see Cardinal Mazarin, opening the Temple of Peace and bringing the Peace of the Pyrenees about.

Despite its name, we actually begin with an epilogue on the Franco-Spanish war, which had been inherited from the Thirty Years War of old. Here we see Cardinal Mazarin, opening the Temple of Peace and bringing the Peace of the Pyrenees about.

WDF 28.1: The Second Anglo-Dutch War Part 2

How did Charles return home after the execution of his father, and over a decade of king-less Commonwealthing? Here we examine what brought young and hopeful Charles II to the moment of truth - standing across the Channel, poised for his return. What forces brought him here, and why did the British and Irish people collectively decide to bring their king back, after killing their last one (and his father) only a decade before. 

Charles II was confident, calm, casual and apparently very sexually attractive to boot! He was about to enter into a series of events which would affect a great change in Britain, from republic to monarchy and back with the House of Stuart again.

Charles II was confident, calm, casual and apparently very sexually attractive to boot! He was about to enter into a series of events which would affect a great change in Britain, from republic to monarchy and back with the House of Stuart again.

WDF 28.2: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 3

How did Charles feel upon landing in his home away from home? What did the British people think of their new king, having killed off his father only a decade before? Britain had been through the ringer, but there was every reason to hope that now things would be different. 

Interestingly, it was the Dutch that threw Charles the biggest party before he returned home to claim his crown. Having lived in exile for many years, it remained to be seen how the experiences would shape Charles' views on foreign policy.

Interestingly, it was the Dutch that threw Charles the biggest party before he returned home to claim his crown. Having lived in exile for many years, it remained to be seen how the experiences would shape Charles' views on foreign policy.

WDF 28.3: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 4

Here we examine Charles II's marriage and alliance with Portugal, and how while on the surface it may seem like another example of Charlie coming under his cousin's spell, the truth is far more interesting, and revealing of Charles' character. So check it out - hopefully by the end you'll have a better idea of what's going on in Europe and why Charles seemingly went against the grain.

As a wife, Catherine was loyal and pious, but to a British population desperate for a Queen they could look up, Charles' pick of the Catholic Portuguese heiress took some getting used to. Eventually, she would win the hearts and minds of his kingdom, though she would never bear him any children.

As a wife, Catherine was loyal and pious, but to a British population desperate for a Queen they could look up, Charles' pick of the Catholic Portuguese heiress took some getting used to. Eventually, she would win the hearts and minds of his kingdom, though she would never bear him any children.

WDF 28.4: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 5

Herein we examine the unnatural lengths Charles II of GB went to in order to acquire the diplomatic insulation against the Dutch that he thought he needed. While Charles worked to get his triple alliance in the early 1660s, he also had to be wary of the machinations of his cousin, Louis XIV, and Holland's Grand Pensionary, Johan de Witt. How did he fare in his efforts? Let's find out, in an episode that is truly the bread and butter of what we do here at WDF!

Whatever the reason for Charles' apparently intense dislike of the Dutch, his diplomatic efforts would alter the course of history

Whatever the reason for Charles' apparently intense dislike of the Dutch, his diplomatic efforts would alter the course of history

WDF 28.5: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 6

Herein we examine how Johan de Witt of Holland managed to pile the pressure onto Denmark, as the campaign for the hearts and minds of Frederick III's agents continued. How would de Witt use his cards against the Danes, what secret deals did France have, and could all three of them join forces in a triple alliance of their own? Let's find out, as we continue this ongoing saga.

Charles' intense dislike of the Dutch was tempered by the diplomatic acumen of Johan de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of the States of Holland and a critical figure in European politics for much of the 1650s and 60s.

Charles' intense dislike of the Dutch was tempered by the diplomatic acumen of Johan de Witt, the Grand Pensionary of the States of Holland and a critical figure in European politics for much of the 1650s and 60s.

WDF 28. 7: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 8

Here we examine how in the final year of semi peace, Britain and the Netherlands finally came to blows. It's a story of court conspiracy, costly bluff, underestimation, foreign theatres and home pressures, but it culminated in the outbreak of war for the second time in March 1665. With the gloves off, only time would tell whether this would be a repeat of the first war, or whether the Dutch would redefine themselves against Charles' greatest hopes.

The war began, but it would not be a straightforward conflict for either side.

The war began, but it would not be a straightforward conflict for either side.

WDF 28.80: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 9

Herein we look at the opening moves of the war, with a British naval victory, plague in London and Dutch stubbornness. What does the first year of the war say about what's to come? Hint, it says that both sides were in for a stormy ride, and only one could come out victorious. Who that victor would be was no longer so simple to answer.

Though Lowestoft was a victory for England, it wasn't the crushing defeat London wanted or expected. The Dutch repaired their vessels and prepared for the next fight, while the English rapidly ran out of money, and plague struck in London

Though Lowestoft was a victory for England, it wasn't the crushing defeat London wanted or expected. The Dutch repaired their vessels and prepared for the next fight, while the English rapidly ran out of money, and plague struck in London

WDF 28. 85: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 10

Herein we examine autumn 1665, and how the indefatigable Johan de Witt managed to balance the different parties of opinion at home. We hear about the difficulties in getting the French on side, the low Dutch morale and we receive a refresher course on the lay of the land in Dutch provincial matters. The Franco-Dutch defensive alliance meant that Louis would have to wage war against his cousin, but the path towards this sideshow of the wider Anglo-Dutch War was far from certain.

Bernhard von Galen, the Prince Bishop of Munster and Cologne, was a consistent thorn in the side of the Dutch, and would only be expelled once the French intervened militarily on the Dutch side.

Bernhard von Galen, the Prince Bishop of Munster and Cologne, was a consistent thorn in the side of the Dutch, and would only be expelled once the French intervened militarily on the Dutch side.

WDF 28.90: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 11

Herein we examine the first half of 1666, and the efforts both sides made to bring about an effective victory that would bring them an advantageous peace, or at least convince their allies of their power. It leads us with a series of fascinating anecdotes and background pieces nicely into the final showdown waiting for us in the next episode, so I hope you enjoy it!

The four days' battle was a critical victory for the Dutch, and demonstrated what they could actually do at sea when given the opportunity.

The four days' battle was a critical victory for the Dutch, and demonstrated what they could actually do at sea when given the opportunity.

WDF 28.95: The Second Anglo Dutch War Part 12

Here we examine the critical final year of the conflict, which included a stunning display of Dutch tenacity, British poverty and French ambition. All in all, it sets us up for the next chapter in the era, as all involved already looked ahead to what would come next. Was this a victory designed to ensure Dutch future prosperity, or would it doom the Dutch Republic to a war of revenge further down the line? Who could know just what Louis XIV had planned? Find out here, in our final episode on the Second Anglo Dutch War. Thankssss!

The Dutch total victory and rout of the depleted navy at the Medway was one of the most crushing experiences in English maritime history, and Charles would appreciate it if you never mentioned it in his presence!

The Dutch total victory and rout of the depleted navy at the Medway was one of the most crushing experiences in English maritime history, and Charles would appreciate it if you never mentioned it in his presence!